What Is Sensorineural Hearing Loss?

Aug 16, 2023
Fact Checked
Learn the causes, symptoms, and treatments for sensorineural hearing loss—the most common type of permanent hearing loss—and how hearing aids can help.
Medically reviewed by: Brian Murray

Key Takeaways

Hearing loss is experienced by people of all ages and cultures: The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that hearing loss affects 1.5 billion people worldwide, almost 20% of the world’s population.2 In the United States, nearly 38 million people over 18 have some degree of hearing loss.3

Sensorineural hearing loss, or SNHL, is one of the most prevalent types of hearing loss and can be caused by a number of factors.4 While SNHL can’t always be prevented or reversed, using hearing aids can significantly help.

In the past few decades, research has shown untreated hearing loss can increase the risk of multiple serious health conditions, like dementia and other types of cognitive decline, depression, social isolation, and falls.5 If you or someone you care for has symptoms of sensorineural hearing loss, read on to learn about your options for hearing testing and treatment.

What causes sensorineural hearing loss?

The term “sensorineural” is a combination of two words. “Sensori” refers to the cochlea, which is the sensory organ of the inner ear. “Neural” refers to the auditory nerve that transmits sounds from the ear to the brain. If the auditory nerve or hair cells in the cochlea are damaged, SNHL can result.6

But what initially causes the cell or nerve damage that leads to hearing loss? Some of the most common causes of sensorineural hearing loss are:7

Symptoms of sensorineural hearing loss

If you or a loved one are experiencing sensorineural hearing loss, you may notice the following symptoms:15

Types of sensorineural hearing loss

Just as eyesight can vary between the right and left eye, hearing ability is often different in each ear.


Hearing loss that is somewhat even in both ears is called bilateral. The National Institute on Aging estimated that bilateral hearing loss is the most common type experienced by older adults.16


Unilateral hearing loss occurs when one ear can hear within the normal range, but the other ear has some degree of hearing loss.17 You may also see the term single-sided deafness, or SSD, which refers to one ear completely lacking hearing ability.18


The term asymmetrical hearing loss refers to hearing loss that occurs in both ears, but it’s greater in one ear than the other. The shape of the audiogram, which shows how loud you need various sound frequencies to be in order to hear them, may also look different for one ear than the other.19

Sudden sensorineural hearing loss

Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is hearing loss that occurs within a 72-hour window due to sensorineural causes rather than a physical blockage (due to excess fluid or earwax, for example).20 It can be caused by an injury, illness, or exposure to a loud noise, like gunfire or an explosion. Research shows COVID-19 may also increase the risk of SSNHL.21 When this type of hearing loss occurs, it’s considered a medical emergency.

Brian Murray, a hearing instrument specialist and workshop consultant for Alpaca Audiology in Raleigh, North Carolina, said that prompt treatment can make all the difference for people with SSNHL. “Sometimes hearing can be restored fully or partially depending on the cause and potential treatments. A lot of times patients will wait and then try to schedule a hearing test, and by that time it’s too late and the loss may be permanent.”

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If you experience a sudden loss of hearing in one or both ears, go to the nearest emergency department for immediate medical attention.

Diagnosing sensorineural hearing loss

An audiologist at a hearing care clinic can conduct testing to diagnose your type and degree of hearing loss. Hearing instrument specialists can also evaluate hearing loss for the purpose of fitting and dispensing hearing aids.22 And if you’re unable to get to a hearing care clinic or simply want a general idea of how good your hearing is, you can take an online hearing screening.

In-person hearing exams

An in-person hearing exam at a hearing care clinic is a thorough assessment that takes about an hour and includes both a physical exam and several hearing tests.

Pure tone audiometry

Pure tone testing consists of several types of hearing tests that measure how well each ear can hear low, medium, and high sound frequencies.23

Speech audiometry

Speech audiometry consists of several parts that when combined, provide an overall picture of any hearing deficits that may affect your understanding of speech and conversations.24

After your exam is complete, you’ll receive a graph called an audiogram with the results from your pure tone audiometry tests. It shows the lowest volume at which you can hear different sound frequencies half of the time in each ear.

Audiogram results can be used in the following ways:

Online hearing screenings

A number of online hearing screenings are now available. Most of them are free and take less than five minutes to complete. Online screenings can’t be used for diagnostic purposes, but they’re a great way to get a general idea of your hearing ability.

The Hearing Number

The Johns Hopkins Cochlear Center for Hearing and Public Health has developed an easy method of monitoring your hearing health, similar to the way many people keep track of other health numbers such as blood pressure or cholesterol.

The Hearing Number is equivalent to the PTA from an audiogram.25 If you haven’t had an audiogram, you can check your hearing and get your Hearing Number by installing the free Mimi Hearing Test app on your smartphone.

The app is currently available only for Apple devices. After a three-minute hearing check called the Pure Tone Threshold test, the Mimi app provides your audiogram and Hearing Number. You can also keep track of your hearing results over time.

We spoke with Frank Lin, MD, PhD, director of the Center for Cochlear Hearing and Public Health and an epidemiologist at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, about Hearing Numbers. Lin said knowing your Hearing Number can help you get treatment for hearing loss if and when it happens. “[Hearing loss] is a natural progression that we all go through, but if you know your number you can act on it.”

How to treat sensorineural hearing loss

A variety of treatments are effective at treating SNHL and improving hearing ability. The most common mode of treatment is hearing aids.

Hearing aids

In years past, hearing aids didn’t always work well and often came with distracting effects, like whistling noises when being handled. But hearing aid technology and design have advanced greatly in the past two decades, and many modern hearing aids are built with high-tech features, like rechargeable batteries, Bluetooth connectivity, water resistance, and artificial intelligence for improved sound processing.

Types of hearing aids

Today, over-the-counter (OTC) hearing aids can be used by adults with mild to moderate hearing loss and start at around $200 per pair. You can also find more information on the most affordable hearing aids.

Prescription hearing aids can treat all degrees of hearing loss, from mild to profound. They generally cost at least $1,600 per pair but also include more features and customizability than OTC devices.

Specialized prescription devices, called contralateral routing of signal (CROS) hearing aids, are also available for people with unilateral hearing loss. They work by sending sound frequencies picked up in the nonfunctional ear to a hearing aid worn in the functional ear for processing. 26

How do hearing aids work?

Most OTC and prescription hearing aids are called air-conduction hearing aids, and they work by amplifying sound frequencies using air vibrations. The amplified sound is then sent through the ear canal to the middle and inner ear.27

Bone-conduction hearing aids

Due to their different design and sound-processing mechanism, bone-conduction hearing aids can be surgically placed, worn on a headband, or placed directly on the skin. They amplify sound by vibrating bones in the skull, which then stimulates the inner ear.28

People with outer or middle ear problems may benefit from bone-conduction hearing aids. They can also be used to treat the following conditions:

Cochlear implants

Cochlear implants are surgically implanted devices that can be helpful for people with unilateral hearing loss, one-sided deafness, or other conditions that can’t be successfully treated with traditional hearing aids.29 Because cochlear implants send signals directly to the auditory nerve for processing in the brain, they bypass the need for involvement by the inner ear.

Auditory training

Wearing hearing aids can help your ears take in more sound, but your brain may still have trouble making sense of that sound, especially if you’ve had hearing loss for years but only recently started using hearing aids. The reason for this is that when hearing loss goes untreated, the brain pathways that normally process sound begin to die. Over time, they even get recruited to process signals from your other senses, such as sight.30

Wearing hearing aids can cause positive changes in the brain characterized by the reactivation of those auditory pathways, and auditory training can help by training your brain to make sense of the sounds around you, including conversations.31

Auditory training apps and computer programs often resemble video games and can be played on a laptop, smartphone, or other device. This type of hearing therapy is still fairly new, and it’s not routinely discussed during hearing exams. But you may find the combination of auditory training and consistent hearing aid use helpful for improving understanding of sounds in your environment.

Tools and strategies for better communication

Making a few adjustments in how you communicate and using specialized audio equipment can also be helpful in your journey to better hearing.

Good communication practices

The Hearing Number website lists steps you can take to help improve communication and enjoy the time you spend with family and friends. Try the following ideas:

CapTel phone
CapTel phone

In many states, residents can get an internet-based Captel phone free of charge if they have a confirmation from a doctor or audiologist stating they have hearing loss. These phones allow you to hear and read phone conversations at the same time. Voice messages are also recorded on the screen, so you can read them later.

Is sensorineural hearing loss permanent?

SNHL is usually permanent. Once the hair cells of the inner ear are damaged or lost, they can’t be repaired. The good news is that hearing aids can greatly improve hearing ability in the majority of people with SNHL.

Conductive vs. sensorineural hearing loss

SNHL is one common type of hearing loss, but there’s also a second type, called conductive hearing loss. This condition occurs when sounds can’t travel from the middle or outer ear to the inner ear.32

Causes of conductive hearing loss include:

Treatment for conductive hearing loss often involves procedures to remove the obstruction or otherwise address the cause of hearing loss.

Murray said that while the ultimate goal is always to correct an underlying condition affecting a patient’s hearing, “There are certain cases where conductive losses can’t be medically treated, or they require surgery or intervention that a patient doesn’t want to go through with.” In those cases, hearing aids can still help by amplifying sounds entering your ear canal.

Our Reviews Team interviewed Jacquelyn C. J. Lovitt, AuD, co-founder of Capital Institute of Hearing and Balance in Silver Spring, Maryland, for more information about treatment options for different types of hearing loss.

How to prevent hearing loss

The NIDCD recommends the following steps to help protect your hearing and prevent or delay hearing loss:33

Bottom line

Hearing health research and technology have greatly advanced in the past 20 years, and there are now a variety of solutions to help people with hearing loss.

Sensorineural hearing loss can significantly affect your quality of life and health. Getting help for your hearing with hearing aids, compensatory strategies for communicating, and other forms of treatment is crucial for your overall well-being.

Frequently asked questions

Sensorineural hearing loss is a type of hearing loss caused by damage to or malfunction of the auditory nerve and/or the hair cells of the inner ear.

One of the most common causes of sensorineural hearing loss is aging. As we grow older, the hair cells in the inner ear can become damaged or destroyed.

Sensorineural hearing loss is a serious condition with implications not only for hearing, but for your overall health and well-being. If left untreated, hearing loss of all types can make people feel isolated and lonely. Hearing loss has also been linked to dementia, other types of cognitive decline, injury-causing falls, and depression.

People with mild, moderate, or severe sensorineural hearing loss can still hear, but they may have trouble understanding sounds or need them to be louder in order to hear well. Those with profound hearing loss may not be able to hear any sounds except those that are very loud.

In most cases, sensorineural hearing loss cannot be completely corrected. But hearing aids and other treatments can greatly improve hearing ability.

The best hearing aid for SNHL is the one that addresses your hearing needs, budget, lifestyle, and preferences. A variety of prescription and OTC hearing aids can effectively treat sensorineural hearing loss.

Conductive hearing loss is due to a physical obstruction that keeps sound from reaching the inner ear, whereas sensorineural hearing loss is caused by damage to the auditory nerve or hair cells of the inner ear.

Some of the symptoms of sensorineural hearing loss include trouble understanding conversations in noisy environments, asking people to repeat themselves, ringing or buzzing in the ears, sensitivity to loud noises, and needing to turn the volume up on the TV or radio louder than others find comfortable.

Sensorineural hearing loss can be caused by a number of factors, like aging, exposure to loud noise, injuries, illnesses, Ménière’s disease, and certain medications.

Sensorineural hearing loss is the most common kind of hearing loss. Worldwide, an estimated 1.5 billion people—almost 20% of the population—experience some degree of hearing loss.35

Have questions about this review? Email us at reviewsteam@ncoa.org.


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Cara Everett, MS, RDN, LDN
Cara Everett Author, Medical Reviewer
Cara Everett is a writer and registered dietitian nutritionist who has been helping people reach their wellness goals for over 20 years. In addition to working in clinical practice, Cara writes extensively on hearing aid technology, keeping pace with new models and industry developments to help readers make the most informed purchasing decisions possible. She has spent more than 1,000 hours researching and testing hearing aids.
Photo of Brian Murray, Hearing Instrument Specialist
Brian Murray Medical Reviewer
Brian Murray was born and raised in upstate New York. He studied at Ithaca College, where he earned a Bachelor of Science degree in Speech Language Pathology and Audiology in 2010. He is registered/licensed to dispense hearing aids in New York, North Carolina, and Virginia, where he has worked in both private practice and retail clinics. He currently works as an event consultant, working with clinics across the country.
Kathleen Cameron
Kathleen Cameron Reviewer
Kathleen Cameron, BSPharm, MPH, has more than 25 years of experience in the health care field as a pharmacist, researcher, and program director focusing on falls prevention, geriatric pharmacotherapy, mental health, long-term services and supports, and caregiving. Cameron is Senior Director of the NCOA Center for Healthy Aging, where she provides subject matter expertise on health care programmatic and policy related issues and oversees the Modernizing Senior Center Resource Center.
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